Monday, May 25, 2020
Forensic science has come a long way to solving crimes as they occur each day, from stealing, killings, burglary and kidnappings. People that commit these crimes need to be caught so that they pay the consequence for their actions. While catching a criminal is not an easy task, however some of the most effective ways to do so come from the effectiveness of DNA analysis. Forensic scientist play a vital role in helping catch criminals, using different devices so as DNA markers and DNA testing along with many more different types to help catch a criminal. It is possible for DNA analysis to have unfounded results that can lead to an unjust conviction, with most of the time, resulting from human error. Although there remains diverse thoughts on the issues of DNA analysis being the most effective tool for the law enforcement, most researchers agree that DNA analysis is highly effective and helps law enforcement cracking down on the criminals that committed the crimes. DNA Analysis With the exception of haploid gametes and red blood cells that have no nucleus, the majority of cells making up the human body are diploid cells carrying DNA (Diploid vs Haploid, n.d.). There are many different types of biological evidence that are used in forensic science including skin, semen, blood, saliva, hair and urine, however some biological evidence is used more than others (Biological evidence, n.d.). The use of biological evidence in DNA differs, there are different areas of studyShow MoreRelatedThe Examination Of Forensic Science1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesScience is frequently viewed as a way to examine the world and its contiguous atmosphere. Coming from the word scientia, which is Latin and means knowledge, science is a methodical readiness that creates and arranges information in the form of testable justifications and expectations about the world that we know. Many ideas fall directly into this category. Because of this, a lot of notions and concepts can be categorized as a science discipline. It is apparent that certain science disciplinesRead MoreInformation, Education, And Not For Forensic Purposes1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe integrity of the information despite having the appropriate tools. This is because digital forensic scientists created the tools for security and other computer related purposes and not for forensic purposes (Casey, 2004, p.29). This poses specific issues when the investigators are trying to collect information in a manner that is acceptable by law, and while it is true that it is possible to create tools specifically for forensic purposes and that testing it is easy, it is still a relativelyRead MorePolice Enforcement And Criminal Investigation Essay974 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLaw enforcement, in some form, has existed for centuries and since its creation there has been numerous improvements. Improvements have come about because of community changes and the need for more effective ways of policing the people. As crimes became more fierce and complex so did the need for the investigation and solving of these crimes. Criminal investigative techniques were not just born from thin air, some thought and planning had to go into figuring out the proper ways to go about doingRead MoreAnthropology Essay : The Importance Of Anthropology1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessome dusty old fossils. In reality, anthropology is much more broad than archaeology, which people normally associate with it. Forms of anthropology are used in many aspects of daily life from advertising to law enforcement. Anthropology is difficult to define, as it is extremely broad as a science, but it is vital to everyday life. The best way to define anthropology is as the study of humans. Anthropology has four disciplines that all focus on different aspects of the human race. The first is calledRead MoreThe Effectiveness of DNA Profiling in Forensics Essay684 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Forensics has been greatly enhanced by technology. DNA profiling is one of the technologies that has influenced efficiency and credibility of forensic evidence. The FBI first started using DNA in one of its cases in 1988. In Europe, the United Kingdom opened a DNA database in 1955 (Milena, 2006). The main use of the DNA is to compare the evidence collected at crime scene with the suspects. In addition, it helps to establish a connection between the evidence and the criminals. The investigationsRead MoreForensic Disciplines Used For Investigations And Trials1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesexonerate a suspect of a crime or past prosecuted crimes. Physical evidence incorporates a list of different laboratory tests to analyze evidence such as Pathology, Digital and Multimedia science, medical examiners this list is not limited to fingerprint analysis and tool mark examiners. Major forensic disciplines are methods used for investigations and trials and their reliability is established in a scientific manner. Some of the physical evidence includes biological evidence, sample and dataRead MoreCriminal Profiling the Popular Tv Shows 21594 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCriminal Investigative Psychology Criminal Profiling Christina Gooden English 122 Mrs. Bowman May 10, 2010 Criminal Profiling has been made a desired profession by the popular TV shows such as Law and Order and Criminal Minds, but in reality, criminal profiling has been a source for Law Enforcement since the early 1100s. The first documented use of criminal profiling was the demonization of Jews, better known as Ã¢â¬Å"Blood LibelÃ¢â¬ . These accusations are still used against Jews today, unfortunatelyRead MoreThe Forensic Science of Criminal Profiling Essay1436 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Forensic Science of Criminal Profiling Profiling: an invaluable tool for catching criminals and killers. Profiling is a relatively new approach to crime solving, put in place by forensic psychiatrists. Criminal profiling is the process by which a practitioner analyses information from a crime scene in order to create physical and psychological profile of the perpetrator. All information from a crime scene is a reflection of the criminals behavior. And this behavior can create a surprisinglyRead MoreThe Fbi And Crime At The Beginning Of The 1930s1910 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespremier law enforcement agency today. The Federal Bureau of Investigation has come a long way since its establishment over 100 years ago. The establishment of the Bureau was more of a political achievement rather than a functional one. It was not well suited to enforce federal law in the United States, as it lacked the professionalism it needed to be effective. As time passed, however, much needed changes were made to the FBI to improve its function as a law enforcement agencyRead MoreFacial Reconstructions2008 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesForensic Facial Reconstructions Samantha McAnally CRMJ430 April 20, 2013 Abstract This paper will focus mainly on the history and the various techniques that forensic facial reconstruction has to offer. It will also go over some problems or an issue that is process has faced over the years. The Daubert Standard will discuss and how facial reconstruction was allowed as evidence thru this standard. I will go over all the periods of time that facial reconstruction was used. Computerized
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Taming Savages When William Golding introduced Ralph in his book The Lord of the Flies I immediately identified with him. He was somewhat intelligent, yet deferred to logic and truly spent the time to think out a solution to the current crisis, instead of being a demanding dictator, and how to solve them. Golding excellently exhibits Ralph s abilities near the end of the book when he is trying to figure out how to get out of the burning brush. I have been in dozens situations that demanded immediate attention and solution which reminded me of myself when I had to learn things in a trial by fire method over the years. For example, I come back from lunch and there was a backup on the line. Being the manager on duty at 18 I did not have much experience, yet I immediately sprung into action and started ordering people around which averted a huge crisis. This is my first of a few points on how I firmly believe that Ralph was in the right; everything he did and said was correct and to the benefit of the entire group. The problem, though, is that when you have two alpha males, with one always being used to being in charge, therein creates an immense hierarchical problem, very similar to Cain and Able from the Bible. One becomes jealous of the other and just like these two, Jack executes any means to gain control. In Jack s case, when he decided to excuse their brutality towards Simon by saying it was him in disguise, it just goes to show how far some kids, and someShow MoreRelatedLord Of The Flies By William Golding869 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLord of the Flies Psychology Sometimes people wear fake personas like a cloak over their shoulders, used to hide what is really underneath. This harsh reality is witnessed in William GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s classic Lord of the Flies, a novel that is famous for not only its sickening plot, but also for the emotional breakdowns all of its characters experience. These issues are akin to those shown in certain real-world psychological experiments. A summary of GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s Lord of the Flies, combined with the evidenceRead MoreThe Lord Of The Flies By William Golding1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The theme of The Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, is the reason society is flawed is because people are flawed. Although Piggy is knowledgeable, he has many flaws including his laziness and physical inabilities. Ralph is an authority seeker. He sets rules and laws, yet does little to enforce them. Ralph wants to be the ruler, without doing the work to enforce his laws. Jack is persistent. He is rude, harsh and violent in or der to get what he wants. He wants to be supreme. PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s flaws areRead MoreLord Of The Flies By William Golding1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the novel Lord of The Flies by William Golding, the characters Ralph, Piggy, and Jack represent important World War II leaders Franklin Roosevelt, Adolf Hitler, and Winston Churchill. Golding, who had served in World War II, was well aware of the savagery created, and used it to base his book on. Ralph represents Franklin Roosevelt , Jack represents Adolf Hitler, and Piggy represents Winston Churchill. Ralph being of the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s main protagonist is important in the outcome of the story becauseRead MoreThe Lord Of The Flies By William Golding1065 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Lord of the Flies Essay The Lord of the Flies written by William Golding and published on September 17, 1954 is a story told about a group of stranded boys and their fight for survival against the wilderness and themselves. In this story many signs of symbolism are used by Golding to point out certain aspects of society that Golding thought strongly of. This story on first read may just seem to be a survival- esque piece of literature but, on a deeper look one can find GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s true motiveRead MoreLord of The Flies by William Golding619 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesGovernments are no different; they fight for power just like the rest of us do. They just do it on a much bigger scale. Qualities from Oligarchy, Totalitarianism, Democracy, Dictatorship, and Anarchy governments are used in several parts of Lord of The Flies that represent different characters and different situations. An Oligarchy is a small group of people having control of a country or organization. A Totalitarianism government is a form of government that permits no individual freedom and thatRead MoreThe Lord of the Flies by William Golding1306 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn The Lord of the Flies, William Golding creates a microcosm that appears to be a utopia after he discharged from the British Royal Navy following World War II. After an emergency landing, Golding places a diverse group of boys on the island that soon turns out to be anything but utopia. The island the boys are on turns out to be an allegorical dystopia with inadequate conditions (Bryfonski 22). The boys reject all lessons they learned from their prior British society, and they turn towards theirRead MoreLord of the Flies by William Golding932 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdiscussing two particular themes from a novel called Lord of the Flies by William Golding. Lord of the Flies was written in 1954 after World War II. Ruler of the Flies is a purposeful anecdote about something that many readers canÃ¢â¬â¢t really describe. Individuals cant choose precisely what. Its either about the inalienable underhanded of man, or mental battle, or religion, or personal inclination, or the creators emotions on war; however William Golding was in the Navy throughout World War II, or perhapsRead MoreLord Of The Flies By William Golding1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAccording to Lord of the Flies is still a Blueprint for Savagery by Eleanor Learmonth and Jenny Tabakoff, the words Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid. Of usÃ¢â¬ first appeared in GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s novel 60 years ago. Lord of the Flies by William Golding follows a group of schoolboys trapped on an island after a plane crash during a world war. At the beginning, they celebrate as the y have total autonomy as there are no adults around. They attempt to establish a civilization but when order collapses, they go on a journey from civilizationRead MoreLord of the Flies, by William Golding1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In William Goldings Lord of the Flies a group of English school boys crash land onto an uninhabited island somewhere in the Mid Atlantic ocean. Ralph, the protagonist and also the elected leader, tries to maintain peace and avoid any calamity on the island. However, Jack is neither willing to contribute nor listen because he is jealous of Ralph and has a sickening obsession with killing boars. Ralph has some good traits that help him maintain peace and balance for a period of time. He is charismaticRead MoreLord Of The Flies By William Golding Essay1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Outline Introduction Short intro for Lord of the Flies Short intro on Gangs The bullying and group mentality demonstrated in gangs has resemblances to the characters in Lord of the Flies. II. Bullying/Group mentality Gangs Drugs/Loyalty B. Lord of the flies Jack kills the pig/Jack and Ralph fight III. Effects B. Lord of the flies Jack killing the pig aftermath Violence IV. Conclusion Gangs are considered a group of people that have a common link together
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Identify the current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people including e-safety Children Act 1989 This Act identifies the responsibilities of parents and professionals who must work to ensure the safety of the child. This Act includes two important sections which focus specifically on child protection. Section 47 states that the Local Authority has Ã¢â¬Ëa duty to investigate when there is a reasonable cause to suspect that a child is suffering, or likely to suffer, significant harmÃ¢â¬â¢. Section 17 states that services must be put into place to Ã¢â¬Ësafeguard and promote the welfare of children within the area who are in needÃ¢â¬â¢. The Education Act 2002 This sets out theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If it is found that the child may be at risk of harm or abuse social workers will: carry out an initial assessment of children who are thought to be at risk to find out about: for example, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, the ability of parents to meet the childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, family and environmental factors meet and conduct interviews with the child and family members liaise with and gather relevant information about the child and their circumstances from other agencies take the lead during the Child Protection Conference take action when a child is thought to be in immediate danger. Police The police work closely with childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social care to protect children from harm. The police have particular role to play. All forces have a Child Abuse Investigation Unit (CAIU). Their role and responsibilities include: making a decision on whether a crime had been committed and if so, to begin a criminal investigation gathering evidence from childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social care, other agencies and others thought to be involved taking emergency action if children are in immediate danger Ã¢â¬â this may involve removing the child or removing the perpetrator attending court to give evidence when a crime has been committed. Health professionals Health professionals, in particular GPs and doctors in emergency departments, may examine children with injuries which they suspect may be non-accidental. They have a duty to alert childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social care when abuse is
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Wings of Fire: An Autobiography of APJ Abdul Kalam (1999) is an autobiography of A P J Abdul Kalam, former President of India. It was written by Dr. Kalam and Arun Tiwari.  Kalam examines his early life, effort, hardship, fortitude, luck and chance that eventually led him to lead Indian space research, nuclear and missile programs. Kalam started his career, after graduating from Aerospace engineering at MIT (Chennai), India, at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and was assigned to build a hovercraft prototype. Later he moved to ISRO and helped establish the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre and pioneered the first space launch-vehicle program. During the 1990s and early 2000, Kalam moved to the DRDO to lead the Indian nuclear weapons program, with particular successes in thermonuclear weapons development culminating in the operation Smiling Buddha and an ICBM Agni (missile). Wings of Fire unfolds the story of A P J Abdul Kalam from his childhood in the following seven sections: Preface Acknowledgments Introduction Orientation Creation Propitiation Contemplation Epilogue Creation Section Creation traverses seven chapters, from chapters four to chapter ten; and covers Kalams life and work for 17 years, from the year 1963 until 1980. We will write a custom essay sample on Wings of fire or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It begins with his recollection of works at the Langley Research Center, NASA, in Houston, Virginia,U. S. , and at other facilities in the USA, including the Wallops Flight Facility at Wallops Island in East Coast of the United States, Virginia. At a NASA facility, he remembers to have seen a painting, prominently displayed in the lobby. The painting depicted a battle scene with rocket flying in the background. On closer examination, he found that the painting depicted Tipu SultanÃ¢â¬â¢s army fighting the British. Kalam felt happy to see an Indian glorified in NASA as a hero of rocketry warfare. His association with Thumba and Satellite Launch Vehicle and related projects are vividly presented in the section Creation. During the period covered under Creation, Kalam, in the year 1976, lost his father who lived up to 102 years of age. Kalam took the bereavement with courage and remembered these words written on the death of William Butler Yeats by his friend Auden, and his father: Earth receive an honoured guest; William Yeats is laid to rest: In the prison of his days Teach the free man how to praise. The period covered in the section Creation also brought Kalam national recognition. A pleasant surprise came in the form of conferment of Padma Bhushan on the Republic Day,1981. Propitiation Section Propitiation covers the period 1981 to 1991, and contains five chapters, from chapter 10 to chapter 14. This section covers the scientistÃ¢â¬â¢s journey towards becoming the Ã¢â¬Å"Missile Man of IndiaÃ¢â¬ . In this section, his excellent leadership qualities as taking up the responsibility of shaping up the Guided Missile Development Program, are clearly visible. In this phase of the life, Kalam was responsible for the development of the five missiles Ã¢â¬â Prithvi, Trishul, Akash, Nag and the most awaited one Agni Pictures The book has 24 plates with photographs associated with the life and work of Kalam: Ramanathapuram, from where Kalam had completed his high schooling. Plate 8 shows his teachers at Schwartz High School. Plate 9 shows Nandi, an indigenous hovercraft prototype. Plate 10 shows the picture of a Church in Thumba, a place which was donated by the local Christian community to the IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Space Research Centre. Plate 11 shows him with Prof. Vikram Sarabhai. Plate 12 shows an SLV-3 review meeting. Plate 13 shows presentation of members of SLV-3 team. Plate 14 is the first plate with a colour photograph and shows Prof. Brahm Prakash inspecting SLV-3 in its final stage on integration, and plate 16 shows a colour photograph of SLV-3 on the launch pad. Plate 15 shows him with Prof. Satish Dhawan and the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Plate 16 shows SLV-3 launch. Plate 17 shows him receiving Padma Bhushan. Plates 18 shows successful launch of Prithvi, now a part of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s surface-to-surface weapons system. Plate 19 shows Kalam standing by the side of Agni, standing on its launch pad. Plate 20 shows a cartoon by renowned cartoonist R. K. Laxman. Plate 21 shows another cartoon on the failure of Agni Missile. Plate 22 shows him after successful launch of Agni Missile. Plate 23 shows Kalam receiving the Bharat Ratna from the President, K. R. Narayanan.
Friday, April 10, 2020
Beowulf is steeped in a pagan tradition that depicts nature as hostile and forces of death as uncontrollable. Blind fate picks random victims; man is never reconciled with the world. Beowulf ends a failure. There is some truth in this conclusion, but for the most part, someone who didn't have a well-lived life has most likely portrayed it. Beowulf is steeped in a pagan tradition, but not one that depicts nature as hostile. The setting in the beginning is portrayed as, "...these beautiful plains marked off by oceans, then proudly setting the sun and moon to glow across the land and light it..."(8). This doesn't sound like anything hostile to me; on the contrary, what is being described creates an image of delectation. "The corners of the earth were made lovely with trees..."(11) is said. When reading these words, the last thing on my mind would be hostile. Forces of death and blind fate picking random victims may have some truth to them, but fate is something that's very disputed. "...Snatched up thirty men, smashed them unknowing in their beds..."(37) This may seem like fate had decided who was going to die, but it probably wasn't so. Grendel, "...slipped through the door..."(36) and snatched himself whomever he could get his hands onto. He most likely came in and killed the first thirty that were sleeping closest to him. He undoubtedly didn't creep over all those men in risk of waking them up and start slaughtering on that side. What if, while he was massacring the group, they would have woken up? The he would have been trapped in the mead hall and would have surely found his death. I imagine Grendel being smarter that that. It wasn't fate that decided who would die that night, but simply those who had slept near the door. Making smart decisions and thinking things over can control your fate, if such a thing exists. Beowulf did not end in failure. How could a man who was known as a hero and King be considered a failure? He can't. He, after defeating Grendel's mother, became King of the Geats and was admired by his people. He was showered in gifts as was said. "...Laden with gifts given him by Hrothgar..."(pg. 34, prologue) He lived in peace for fifty years before having to face the dragon; fifty years of peace and prosperity to rejoice over. Many men did not make it to fifty in those days and he was past that and still well off. When he did face the dragon, he knew he wasn't going to come out alive. "...With glory denied him. He knew it, but he raised his sword..."(228) He was an old man and had done everything he had wanted to do. His life had been a complete one and death would be a welcome overpass. How can one who has long completed his journey in success be a failure? Beowulf defeated Grendel. Beowulf defeated Grendel's mother. Beowulf became King of the Geats. Beowulf lived for fifty years in peace. Beowulf defeated the dragon. Beowulf died a man of honor, loved and respected by his people. He was a noble leader and lived the life of a King. His body was defeated on earth, but his soul and spirit lived on for many years to follow. Beowulf was not a failure.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Henry David Thoreau Civil Disobedience Free Online Research Papers (1)Henry David ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s classical political essay Civil Disobedience was written in 1849 in Concord, Massachusetts, in response to an evening spent in jail for ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to pay six years of delinquent poll taxes, as a non-violent protest against slavery and the ongoing offensive war against Mexico. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose in penning his famed essay was not to eradicate these grievous deeds, but to demonstrate how and why every true patriot must wash his hands of the organization that perpetuates them. (2)In the work Thoreau heartily endorses a policy of limited government, and exhorts the necessity of acting according to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s conscience. No societal structure has a conscience, except that which it attains by virtue of being populated by conscientious men. Thus, it is the duty of an individual to resist laws that perpetuate injustice, or become nothing more than an inanimate tool, to be used as the government sees fit. Thoreau next addresses the means of effecting change. While he does not believe it is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to go about ridding the world of wrongs, regardless of the magnitude of the offenses, it is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to forego material support of those wrongs. Thoreau claims that hypocrisy and apathy have largely defined AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s interests in slavery and the war, and calls on his fellow citizens (abolitionists in particular) to immediately withdraw their financial support from the government. Since there is no other practical manner in w hich to rebut the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s authority, refusal to pay taxes, and the probability of large numbers of virtuous men being jailed in response, would quickly exhaust the StateÃ¢â¬â¢s resources and force compliance. (3)Thoreau then ruminates on his night in jail. Particularly, he contemplates the manner of reproval, and concludes that it is ineffectual. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts are the true danger to the State, and no amount of brick and mortar can confine them. He loses his little remaining respect for the State, at being treated as a creature of blood and bone merely, and declares his intention to live in accordance with his own nature, regardless of the consequences. (4)Next, Thoreau begins a careful dissection of his beliefs, and those of his neighbors. While he cannot quietly submit for the sake of facilitating comfort (his own, or his country men) he struggles with the reality of injuring the well-meaning, though ignorant. It is not his intention to quibble with his country or his neighbors, but to live in harmony with his principles. He sees the value of the governing structures and implements, and claims an instinct to conform, but conversely believes that it is only from without that a clear understanding of these affectations (and how best to reform them) can be fashioned. Lastly, Thoreau recognizes the wisdom of drinking at such sources of truth as the Constitution and the Bible, yet infers that within the truly wise there is a striving toward the source of even these. This brings him full circle, reiterating his recognition of the individual as the source of the power and authority ascribed to government. Democracy is seen as only a stage in the evolution of the rights of the individual, and Thoreau concludes with the utopic imaginings of a State that would allow full exercise of all individual rights. (5)Thoreau uses a variety of rhetorical strategies to support his claims and to resonate with his fellow Americans. He begins by appealing to the particularly American ideology of limited government with the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"That government is best which governs leastÃ¢â¬ (par. 1). Thoreau is suspicious of government; a tool created to express the will of the people, but often manipulated by a ruling oligarchy that are corrupt and self-interested. Ã¢â¬Å"The government itself, which is only the mode which the people have chosen to execute their will, is equally liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through itÃ¢â¬ (par. 1). He is of the opinion that government is most expedient, both morally and practically, when it refrains from interfering, and that the accomplishments of the country are directly attributable to the collective character of the American people, who have Ã¢â¬Å"done all that has been accomplished; and it would have done somewhat more if the government had not sometimes got in its wayÃ¢â¬ (par. 2). Thoreau is establishing common ground with his compatriots: he deeply values liberty from oppressive government, and recognizes the inherent rights of the individual. (6)Thoreau then switches gears, employing a question and answer method to lead his readers down the path of his logic. Ã¢â¬Å"Must the citizen ever for a moment, or in the least degree, resign his conscience to the legislator?Ã¢â¬ (par. 4). His answer is that, due to the amorality of political structures Ã¢â¬Å"the only obligation which I have a right to assume is to do at any time what I think rightÃ¢â¬ (par. 4). He goes on to underscore that Ã¢â¬Å"a majority are permitted, and for a long period continue, to rule, is not because they are most likely to be in the right, nor because this seems fairest to the minority, but because they are physically the strongestÃ¢â¬ (par. 4). This naturally leads to the question Ã¢â¬Å"How does it become a man to behave toward this American government to-day?Ã¢â¬ (par. 7) and the rather severe reply: Ã¢â¬Å"I answer that he cannot without disgrace be associated with it. I cannot for an instant recognize that political organization as my government which is the slaveÃ¢â¬â¢s government alsoÃ¢â¬ (par. 7). This Socratic method of reasoning earns the respect of his readers by demonstrating a deep understanding of the complicated personal and political issues, and presenting his knowledge in a thorough and logical manner. Thoreau then positions himself in congruence with the American forefathers; Ã¢â¬Å"All men recognize the right of revolution; that is the right to refuse allegiance to, and to resist, the government, when its tyranny or its inefficiency are great and unendurableÃ¢â¬ (par. 8). This statements inference to the American War for Independence (and the obligation of resistance) resounds with every man who considers himself a patriot, pushing readers to acquiesce to ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, or risk becoming the tool of an unjust government. (7)Continuing in the vein of a question and answer method to maintain the credibility of his logic, Thoreau adds the emotional and ethical appeals of citing great thinkers and religious leaders. Ã¢â¬Å"Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, or shall we transgress them at once?Ã¢â¬ (par. 16). Thoreau answers Ã¢â¬Å"Why is it not more apt to anticipate and provide for reform? Why does it not cherish its wise minority? Ã¢â¬ ¦Why does it always crucify Christ, and excommunicate Copernicus and Luther, and pronounce Washington and Franklin rebels?Ã¢â¬ (par. 16) With these comparisons, Thoreau attempts to establish the excellent company that is to be kept when one obligates himself to resisting the status quo, though at the risk of sounding manipulative and patronizing. Thoreau is hardly conciliatory toward either his audience or his target, which jeopardizes the empathy he has built thus far. The possible perception of condesc ension may cause no small disconnect to ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s cause in the minds of some of his readers, but it is merely a strategic error, and hardly one to negate the greater power of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s logic. (8)While ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s logic is impeccable, he still faces an uphill battle in convincing his fellow AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s that Ã¢â¬Å"Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prisonÃ¢â¬ (par. 22). Certainly, many people found the practice of slavery utterly abhorrent, and were at odds with the government in concern with the Mexican war, but found the price of upholding their principles in such personally incorporeal matters to be difficult, or impossible. Thoreau simultaneously encourages and incriminates in paragraph 13. Ã¢â¬Å"It is not a manÃ¢â¬â¢s duty, as a matter of course, to devote himself to the eradication of any, even the most enormous wrong; he may still properly have other concerns to engage him; but it is his duty, at least, to wash his hands of it, and if he gives it no thought longer, not to give it practically his support. If I devote myself to other pursuits and contemplations, I must first see, at least, that I do not pursue them sitting upon another manÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulders.Ã¢â¬ With this, Thoreau illuminates the hypocrisy inherent in the American people, and proposes a very straightforward solution: stop paying taxes. Therein lies the truest power of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. While the issues are broad, his underlying themes (individual rights, the obligation of resistance, and limited government) intricate and his methods complicated, the solution is so simple that even a caveman could do it. Work Cited Thoreau, Henry David. Ã¢â¬Å"On Resistance to Civil Government.Ã¢â¬ Aesthetic Papers. 1949. Research Papers on Henry David Thoreau Civil DisobedienceComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationQuebec and Canada19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andPETSTEL analysis of IndiaAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeCapital PunishmentBringing Democracy to AfricaWhere Wild and West Meet
Saturday, February 22, 2020
List a phobia and explain the systematic desensitization of a phobia - Essay Example ty disorders, and consists of teaching those who suffer from it coping strategies, establishing a hierarchy of stimuli that cause the phobic fear and then progressively and gradually exposing them to the thing they fear (Wikipedia, n.d; Rainey, 1997). When people suffer from irrational fear such as height, they tend to avoid the thing they fear. Since theyre avoiding it, their anxiety level reduces and the reduction of the fear is reinforced by negative reinforcements. Instead of this, the systematic desensitization first teaches how to reduce the levels of anxiety and fear by cognitive strategies that help control the fear rather than letting it build up inside until it becomes unbearable. These strategies can be meditation, thinking happy thoughts, concentrating on breathing and more. Having been taught how to relax and reduce their anxiety, the phobic person will be exposed to the object of his fear gradually, by first being able to talk about it, then seeing a picture illustrating the situation or thing he fear, then experiencing something similar, and finally by experiencing it. One common fear is the fear of flying. Many people think it is extremely dangerous to fly airplanes since it is high in the air and the plane can crash. These people view the experience of flying as terrifying and something which they can never do, seeing as how it completely paralyzes them. Accordingly with the systematic desensitization, the therapist will first teach the patient different ways to relax, like the ones previously mentioned. Relaxation is very important when discussing this fear, because unlike other fears from animals or other objects, flying a plane can last hours, and in this case, it is crucial to be able to fully relax. Then, having established the stimuli which cause the phobic episodes, the therapist will start with the least anxiety-provoking stimulus and gradually move on to the next one, until all of the items listed on the anxiety hierarchy have been